Stem cell summary
Stem cells are incomparable cells in our body. They can change themselves to many different kinds of cells and stem cells can divided quickly. Stem cells do play important and enormous role in our body and they have a huge duty in our body. When we discover a new stem cell so that we have a many ways in treatment. In the past, We were using stem cell for transplant before that isolated them. We know that stem cell in human body are always 100 percent harmonic so that if we using stem cell in another of body we faces a risks. For example when we see that a donor person are not related. The exploration of certain signs lets us to see how we have harmonic host’s and donor’s cells. The recently discover of stem cell in the umbilical cord’s blood has helped us until can extract stem cells from other cisterns. Researchers could cure many diseases (80 disease) by stem cells.
Your body has many different types of cells (more than two hundred) that each cell directed a special way. You have mane cells such as bone cell, blood cell, heart cell and brain cell.
Stem cells have potential
Cells didn’t commence understanding how to come together to shape your body, blood and heart. We can find completely undifferentiated cells during pregnancy or the baby in the uterus that we called embryonic stem cell. These primary stem cell are original cell that have the ability to turn any type of cell in the body.
First isolation occurred in 1998. Fortunately we can extract stem cell that shape a little bit later down the road and we called umbillical cord. These stem cells stay us for life. Adult stem cells are limited in the types they can become. For example Hematopoietic existed in umbilical cord’s blood that these cells can turn different types and these cells can be work in blood and immune system. For example mesenchymal stem cell that can be exist in umbilical cord tissue and these stem cell can be turn to nervous system, sensory organs, circulatory tissues, skin, bone, cartilage.
Stem cells proliferate
To return we have certain types of stem cell that they can turn to special shapes. These function able cells to replicate themselves. Our body has two path to produce more and new cell. The first is cell division. In these path cell replicates to identical cell. Cells in our body to regeneration that we will touch this in a second.
The other paths our body produces cells with stem cell and stem cell do a job so differently and we called asymmetric division and this path your body make two daughter cells. One cell often reproduce itself and another cell can turn to another cell. These trait helped cells until replicate quickly themselves. We can produce many cells with these paths. You understand that your body every day renewal because every cell can live in a period of time. The life duration in stomach is two days. In our body cells, blood cells about four months and nerve and brain cells must live forever. This is reason that they rarely generations.
Stem cells are regenerative
Cells in our body has many different life cycles and many of them constant regeneration but when we faces a damage or occurred, our cells help each other to repair cells and improve the wound.
Scientists first found path to use stem cell a bone marrow and following this discovery scientists could transplant cells in 1956 with bone marrow between identical twins. The act causes to complete remission of the one twin’s leukemia.
One of method in stem cell therapy is infusing stem cell in damage area until replicate there and produce a new cells. Often the stem cell will produce a particular and new cells.
Stem cells need to match
We have immune system in our body that this has path to recognize foreign cell. Immune system lets our body to defend. Although first transplant were becoming successful in 1956 but the act limited twin cell that we called daughter cells and these cells has compatible material of genetic. In 1958 when scientists discovered protein on surfaces of cell that this way helps cells to recognize foreign cell. In 1973 we understand enough about compatibility signs (called human leukocyte antigens or HLAs) to do indirect bone marrow transplant.
The proteins contain of three genes; HLA genes. You inherited one HLA genes of your mother and another one HLA genes inherited your father. Unfortunately about seven patients of 10 patients that when they needed a transplant, in their families don’t have a suitable donor. They can rely on them stem cells or received cells of a public donor. An HLA-match helps us to sure the body accept transplants and if transplants is successful. Also HLA-match decrease the danger of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) when the transplanted cells attack the recipient’s body.
GvHD occurred in 30-40 percent of recipients when donor is still related. If recipient and donor aren’t related we have an increase in danger about 60-80 percent. Unfortunately GvHD is deadly.
Not all adult stem cells are equal
More improvements were made in 1978. When stem cells were discovered in cord blood in 1988 and cord blood stem cells were utilized in a transplant. When stem cells took umbilical cord blood or tissue was better than when we extracted stem cells in bone marrow. This is because stem cells in umbilical cord was more immature than other sources. Cord stem cells didn’t exposed to environment pollutions and disease. In Down passage suggests that it’s the better when we choose cord blood stem cell insisted of another stem cells:
*protected cord stem cells are quickly available when we need them.
*bone marrow stem cell need an offensively and surgeries method.
*protected cord stem cell are tolerant of tissue mismatches and this way decreased signs of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
*protected cord stem cell have a decreased danger transferable viral infections.
*protected cord stem cells have the ability to pass the blood-brain barriers and differentiate into brain cells and other cells that might cure some brain disorders.
Stem cells hold untapped potential
The usage of hematopoietic stem cells that can be existed in the blood cell that remains vein of the umbilical and placenta after childbirth. These materials can treat 80 types of disease. Mesenchymal stem cells that can be existed in in the umbilical cord tissue and these cells can turn to host cells in nervous system, circulatory tissue, sensory organs, bone, skin, cartilage and more are making advance. Some experiments illustrate promise in curing heart disease, diabetes, autism, strokes, Alzheimer and cerebral palsy.
How hydrogels can increase the work of stem cells
In the discovery we have a lot of lab experiments that these technics has improved blindness and aid the brain recover from stock.
Scientists and engineers can use a gel in transplant cell and these gel causes cells keeps a live and helped cells until cells can make the best tissue. Professors Molly Shoichet and Derek van der Kooy, together with Professor Cindi Morshead led the research of field of surgery.
The team embedded stem cells in a hydrogel and understand it improved cell abilities when we transplant both the brains and the eyes. These findings are part of trying at university of Toronto that developed new therapies to repair and improve nerve damage by injury.
Stem cells can turn to any cell type in body and also stem cells can make an organs and tissue. When cells in the lab plate are growing in fact these cells transplant each other and this fact causes to grow. In the new environment we saw that stem cells often died and don’t integrate completely into the surrounding tissue.
Shoichet, a bioengineer who won a price about L’Oreal-UNESCO for woman in science award. Her team last year created a form of bubble in hydrogel that these hydrogel can keep cells during transport.
Shoichet, a professor of applied chemistry at university of Toronto said:
This study goes one step further, showing that the hydrogels do more than just hold stem cells together; they directly promote stem cell survival and integration. This brings stem-cell based therapy closer to reality.
Partially restoring vision
Researchers illustrate us how stem cell can benefit in hydrogel and also stem cell have ability that they can restore function that was lost causes disease or damage.
On part of the stem cell reported in this study that we infused hydrogel in eyes of blind mice. Photoreceptors are the light sensing cell that these cells responsible for vision. Cells can increase integration and cell survival and so that cells able to restore vision.
Dr. Brian Ballios, an expert in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine said:
After cell transplantation, our measurements showed that mice with previously no visual function regained approximately 15 per cent of their pupillary response. Their eyes are beginning to detect light and respond appropriately.
Repairing the brain after strokes
In another part of research one of doctors, Michael Cooke has infused in mice in Shoichet’s and Morshead’s labs. He said:
After transplantation, within weeks we started seeing improvements in the mice’s motor coordination.
His team want to do experiments in larger animals such as rat that rat has big brain and it is better suited for test and experiments to illustrate us how stem cell transplant can help injury or a stroke injury.
Advancing stem-cell based therapies
Shoichet thank about treatment with hydrogel and these activities carry out engineering techniques.
I always think that in engineering our raison d’être is to advance knowledge towards translation.
Because the hydrogel could increase cell survival in the eye and the brain and this method can utilize another part of body. Also another good point about hydrogel is that when one cell transfer another place and a few weeks later hydrogel imbibe by the body.
The significant material consist of some two components; methylcellulose that vocalize a gel and methylcellulose impound the cells together and hyaluronan that causes cells be alive.
Through this physical blend of two materials we are getting the best of both worlds.